I am inspired and encouraged upon reading and learning about post-modernism recently, as it gave me a better understanding of how this philosophical movement, so to speak, came about, which helps people to question established ideologies and practices, especially those that have inadvertently caused oppression and discrimination in the world today, and encourage people to find ways to liberate themselves and others from such oppression and discrimination.
“Certainty versus mystery” and “illusion versus reality”
I think I can probably summarise post-modernism (or post-structuralism) as I understand it as follows:
Modernism (or structuralism) = certainty (based on concrete structures)
Post-modernism (or post-structuralism) = mystery (based on abstract reality)
For example, organised religions such as institutitional churches tend to develop structuralism in their doctrines and practices, opting for certainty and using literal intepretation of the Bible as “absolute truths”. However, by doing so, they are missing the metaphors and symbolism in the scriptures. Hence, post-structuralism seeks to demolish the strongholds imposed by such doctrines, and restore mystery into the spiritual lives of people for them to appreciate and explore with awe and wonder. Another form of modernism in institutional churches is the establishment of power structures and hierarchy in their systems, so I would say post-modernist christianity would seek to question and critique such establishments so as to liberate people from actual and potential oppression and discrimination.
Materialism = illusion of reality (based on the five senses)
Mysticism = reality beyond illusion (based on the sixth sense – intuition)
Similarly, materialism that has developed through science and technology and promotes consumerist cultures tends to give people an illusion of reality. For example, the more people define “advancement of civilisation” by the physical evidence of highways, skyscrapers and material comfort, the deeper they enmesh themselves in their own illusion because materialism is not the ultimate reality. Hence, mysticism can be seen as a key to restore the sense of reality that goes beyond the illusion of the material world. Post-modernism, including the emergent movement, can also be a step towards this direction to help people realise we are all connected and there is no separation between us (humanity) and God (divinity) and one another.
The Zen of post-modernism?
On a similar note, here’s sharing this excerpt from a blog about post-modern spirituality that resonates with me.
“This article above all comes into conflict with duality, beginning with the post-modern theme of deconstruction, or what the ancients called asceticism or κένωσις, emptying out of self. The technique is used in monastic mysticism as much as Zen and Buddhist meditation. We suspend judgement and thought and renounce all earthly attachment. Theories are de-constructed and welet go of knowledge and even belief. We thus transcend the duality of all dialectical opposites and become open to a higher reality.”
(From “Sea of faith“)
Yes, I would also see Zen meditation as part of post-modernism to deconstruct any ideology or belief system that has taken root and impeded one’s understanding of a higher reality, so to speak. After all, post-modernism is about questioning power structures and social constructs, and meditation and “emptying the mind” can be a useful tool to let go of any doctrine or dogma that has been imposed by organised religions. It may be a means of living with non-attachment to ideologies and concepts, which enables one to simply be in the moment and go with the flow of one’s intuition.
A finger pointing to the moon?
I think post-modernism is also a response to “declutter” the information overload as a result of modernism. To put it in another way, post-modernism could be a reminder to people not to be caught up with ideas, concepts and words because these are merely tools or instruments to convey deeper truths about some entity or phenomenon. Whether it be art or science or religion or philosophy, many theories and theologies in these fields have become formalised and established and institutionalised to the point a number of people have become attached to them. As a result, the theories and theologies become dogma, which can create oppression and divisions among those who disagree with one another.
So, post-modernism could be a way to remind people that ultimately, all ideas, concepts and words may serve as a finger pointing to the moon at the most, metaphorically speaking, and they are not the absolute truths in and of themselves. The moment people use words to define and describe something, such as God, they are in a way putting God into their box. While there is a place to use words to describe God (in order to communicate ideas with one another to make a connection), perhaps people need to go beyond words to convey the essence of God. This is probably where silence and meditation comes into the picture. Like what Peter Rollins said in his interview regarding his new book “The idolatry of God” (if I remember correctly), God is not something we can objectify, but rather God is found in the very act of loving itself.
Navigating the matrix of the mind
Also, how we understand and experience life in all its fullness depends on our perception. So it’s all in the mind, so to speak. I am reminded of Max Planck’s quote as follows:
“All matter originates and exists only by virtue of a force which brings the particle of an atom to vibration and holds this most minute solar system of the atom together. We must assume behind this force the existence of a conscious and intelligent mind. This mind is the matrix of all matter.”
So, since the mind is the matrix of all matter, it is our individual minds that create the various theories and philosophies we have today, whether we call them existentialism or nihilism or structuralism, etc. Similarly, when it comes to the gospel in christianity, how the gospel story unfolds depends on how each person perceives the story in one’s mind. In reality, there is no sin, no salvation, no heaven, and no hell. These are only mental constructs or concepts that were created by ancient people to tell stories in order to make sense of their own lives and the world around them. These are only opinions and viewpoints that later became widely accepted in the Jewish and other ancient traditions, that are being passed on through generations even until today.
So, when people realise this, they will be liberated from any kind of religious dogma. They will learn to follow their own intuition and not accept any teaching from others that is fear-based or condemning. I would say post-modernism is simply about deconstructing a structural mind (that has developed as a result of modernism and institutionalisation of ideas) and experiencing a Zen (emptiness) mind that is free from dogma and is marked by bliss and love.
Why post-modernism may be demonised by some institutional churches
It is partly thanks to Peter Rollins that I got to explore and understand a bit more about post-modernism and post-structuralism. I learnt from Wikipedia that he is about same age as me, and he probably revels in being labelled as a “heretic” (as his Ikon is described as that) since he is passionately seeking to challenge the norms and traditions of the institutional church system.
“Peter Rollins (born Belfast, 31 March 1973) is an Irish writer, lecturer, theologian, and philosopher who is associated with the emerging church movement and postmodern Christianity. He is also the founder of the experimental collective Ikon. Ikon describes itself as iconic, apocalyptic, heretical, emerging and failing and engages in what it calls theodrama and ‘transformance art’.”
I guess Peter Rollins has seen enough of the dark side of the institutional church and its controlling system, hence he probably wanted to address this problem by exploring and sharing about post-modern theology. I like this approach too as it questions not only Christian fundamentalism but also atheist materialism. It is typical perhaps of some institutional churches to “demonise” post-modern Christianity because the authorities do not want their congregations to question or challenge their ideologies, theologies and practices, which is unfortunate. I can only hope that more people will somehow come out of institutional religions and question the status quo, and draw their own conclusions and trust their own intuition, as I am also learning to do so myself so far.
Keeping the mystery of God/Divine/Universe alive
Here’s sharing with you an excerpt of the chapter on postmodern theology from the book “The modern theologians”.
“The postmodern God is emphatically the God of love, and the economy of love is kenotic.
Postmodernism, read theologically, is not the erasure of the divine. Rather, it defines the space within which the divine demands to be taken into account. The divine arrives with endless institution of the question – Levina’s “enigma”, Cixous’s “mystery”. Helene Cixous, Jewish by origin, pupil of Derrida, co-founder of Ecriture feminine, confesses: “When I have finished writing, when I am a hundred and ten, all I have done will have been to attempt a portrait of God. Of the God. Of what escapes us and make us wonder. Of what we do not know but feel. Of what makes us live.”
(From “The modern theologians”)
Yes, post-modern theology would help keep the mystery of God/Divine/Universe alive in people’s evolution of consciousness, as they stay open and childlike to appreciate the mystery with wonder and awe.
Finally, here’s sharing this blog, in which I agree with the observation that mystics, artists, poets and children are all “progressives” because post-modernism, as I understand it, is very open and accepting to the panentheistic concept of God is in all.
“Mystics, too, see the world and God “as if for the first time” as they cast aside expectations and look beyond tradition to embrace imagination as spiritual artists and poets, and welcome fresh insight as spiritual children. Remember the famous story of Thomas Merton’s vision at a Louisville intersection, after a prolonged solitary retreat, that people were “walking around shining like the sun.”
Mystics, artists, poets, and children are all “progressives” in this sense.”
Maybe that is why Jesus (who is a progressive mystic himself) says that when we become like little children, we will see/receive/experience the kingdom of God (innocence/righteousness, peace and joy within us), and our intuition and imagination can help us see this truth in the symbolism of the world around us, especially in Nature (including flowers, sky, trees, clouds, ocean, and so on).
- Postmodernism Dictionary – Some thoughts on materialism and universal truth (themysteryofchrist.wordpress.com)
- Exploring the philosophy of Jacques Derrida – Deconstruction and Post-structuralism (realrest.wordpress.com)
- Sea of Faith (sarumuse.wordpress.com)
- Post-Modernism in a nutshell (realrest.wordpress.com)
- Illusions and The Mind: Perception Is Reality! (mindlucidity.wordpress.com)
- John Smallman – Saul – You Light-Bearers Are Filling The World With The Fire Of Divine Love – 27 January 2013 (lucas2012infos.wordpress.com)
- Super Short Introduction to Postmodern Theory, Part II (theivoryland.wordpress.com)
- Beyond the ‘Postmodern University’…does this also imply competing realities for narratives on Impact cases? (rmimr.wordpress.com)